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Kitec, Pex and Plastic Water Lines

Problems with PEX pipes and how to prevent and fix them

With an increasingly larger portion of contractors and homeowners turning away from copper and CPVC and switching to PEX, we’re inevitably facing the reality that PEX is not a final solution for the plumbing industry, and like its predecessors and competitors, has its own ups and downs. The good news is that a PEX system can be made to last beyond the 20-25 standard warranty and perform as needed when properly understood and installed.

Having been in the PEX industry for many years, we’ve heard it all – the PEX-A vs PEX-B debates, PEX vs. copper vs. CPVC, leaks, bursts, kinks and you name it.
While a reader may find that our share of experience is similar to that of others, we’ll try to provide not only a description of the common and not-so-common problems but also the steps to prevent and remedy them where possible.

1. PEX had its issues as so did copper and CPVC. Anyone with a prejudice towards one type or brand of PEX and fondness of another should know that not a single major PEX pipe/fitting system used in the US has been problem free. Here are some examples:

PEX-A (Uponor/Wirsbo and Rehau): dezincification of fittings and chemical leaching/odor (AquaPEX only)
PEX-B (Zurn & Viega): dezincification of fittings
PEX-C (Nibco/CPI/DuraPEX): cracked, leaking pipes
PEX-AL-PEX (Kitec/IPEX): dezincification of fittings

There are probably other, less-known names that are not on the list, but we believe the general idea is clear. Our purpose is not to scare away the reader nor to denounce these brands and companies, but merely to convey the general message. The majority of these companies have now switched over to DZR (DeZincification Resistant) brass or offer poly PEX fittings which are not subject to corrosion. A few have withdrawn from the residential market. As for Nibco, the pipe issue seems to be fundamental and according to our knowledge, the class-action lawsuit process is ongoing (as of December 2015). Little is known about Kitec other than the case has been settled and the claim funds allotted.
Note that in all of the above cases (except NIBCO and AquaPEX), the issue was with the connections (read fittings), not the pipe itself. This important fact is missed by many PEX critics (and proponents of copper, CPVC, or otherwise). Pinhole leaks in copper pipes and cracking of CPVC pipes happened and are still happening today.

2. Water quality matters. A LOT. Factors such as pH level, chlorination, and others have a direct effect on the life span and reliability of the system – including both PEX tubing and fittings. We’ve covered some of this here (PEX vs. Copper). A PB (polybutylene) pipe system, commonly installed decades ago and now accepted countrywide as “defective” had lasted only a few years in some cases, while in others exceeded the 20-25 year lifespan with no major issues. Why the difference? Water quality.

3. Experience makes a difference. With consistent local water quality, an experienced installer has the hands-on knowledge of what works best and what should be left alone in your particular area, whether it be PEX, copper, or otherwise.
On the other hand, an unskilled contractor, not the manufacturer, may be at fault for improper installation and subsequent system failure. There are innumerable examples of such cases, many of which are publicly available.

With the above said, here is the list:

Leaking PEX connections

When water leaks from a PEX connection, it is generally caused by one of the following:

1. DeZincification – occurs with certain water chemistry, causing selective leaching of zinc from brass alloy and resulting in weakening of the fitting and leakages. To counter this problem, most PEX companies have already opted for dezincification-resistant brass for their fittings. PPSU (poly alloy) PEX fittings can replace brass since they are not subject to this process and are widely available. Another method would be to use a “home-run” type system with continuous PEX pipe runs from a main manifold to the plumbing fixture, without any fittings or connections behind the walls. While this does not entirely exclude the possibility of dezincification of manifold and supply stop valves, it presents a safer alternative with better means of early problem detection and repair.

2. Push Fittings (Push to connect) – we’ve covered the issues with leaking push fittings here.

3. Tool was not calibrated properly – when using crimp or clamp/cinch methods, the tool should be calibrated prior to starting an installation and should be periodically checked by those who use it on a regular basis.

4. Failure to properly pressure test a system - may not only result in leakages but require removing entire walls/floors, fixtures, and other costly repairs. Pressure testing requirements may vary by area.

Burst/frozen pipes

It is true that due to the flexible nature of PEX, it is more burst-resistant than copper. Yet in low temperatures, if water completely freezes in the pipes, all types of PEX may burst.

Tested and proven solutions:

1. Drain the entire plumbing system when winterizing a summer home or a house where plumbing is not used in winter.

2. Insulate the pipes installed inside the outside walls with closed-cell, split-type pipe foam insulation. U.S. DOE recommends pipe insulation with a minimum of 3.0 R-value (~ 3/8” thick insulation walls). Select localities recommend an R-value of 4.0 and above (~ 5/8” walls).

3. Install PEX pipe away from outside walls whenever possible. Not only will this greatly reduce the chances of freezing, but will help to save on insulation and hot water bills.

4. Bury PEX below the ground frost line if installing it under the ground outside (such as for outdoor wood boilers, furnaces, main/service lines, etc.). Several manufacturers in the U.S. offer pre-insulated PEX pipe encased in a larger diameter corrugated pipe, ready for installation in a trench.

5. Use a hot water recirculation system without a dedicated return line to maintain a constant hot water temperature in pipes and at the fixture. Such a system will also help to eliminate flushing lukewarm water down the drain while waiting for hot water to arrive from the water heater. A model such as Grundfos UP15-10SU7P/TLC (part# 595916) uses a cold water line as a return line to circulate the water, therefore effectively protecting both hot and cold pipes against freezing. Just make sure your PEX pipe is rated for continuous recirculation (ASTM F2023). Everhot non-barrier PEX is among the few pipe brands which meet this standard.

6. Keep PEX away from sunlight. Like most other plastics, PEX will become brittle if exposed to sunlight for too long and may crack under pressure. The typical exposure limit is ~30 days. Some manufacturers offer UV-stabilized PEX pipe with added inhibitors which may extend the exposure time to around 6 months, but there are no permanent solutions we know of.

7. Give it some slack. Since PEX will expand and contract 1-2.5” per 100ft of length with every 10°F change in water temperature, it should not be pulled tight during the installation. In case of a 60F temperature rise, 100ft may elongate as much as 15”. Use tube talons and pipe clamps which allow for movement of the pipe without damaging it and make expansion loops on long runs of pipe which will carry hot water. Failure to properly secure the PEX pipe will overstress it and may cause mechanical damage and even ruptures.

Odor and chemical leaching

Chemical taste and/or odor in PEX plumbing systems may be caused by the main factors:

1. Leaching of chemicals due to water quality. This is probably the most important issue of all and it deserves a treatise of itself, but for the purposes of this text, we will provide a shortened summary and references for further independent research. We used data from independent, publicly available studies on or related to contaminant diffusion in PEX systems and one in-house test of Everhot PEX.

Findings in the primary study point out that:
1. Level of dissolved contaminants in water is directly affected by chlorine concentration.
2. In identical conditions, the less dense pipe (PEX-A, made from MDPE) leached much more contaminants into water (in some cases up to 200% more) than the higher-density pipe (PEX-B, made from HDPE).

In-house testing revealed OIT (“oxidation induction time”, or how quickly the pipe degrades/becomes brittle) of the PEX-A tubing sample to be 460% faster than that of PEX-B (Everhot PEX and another sample) at 410°F. In other words, PEX-A degraded over 5 times faster than PEX-B and as a result, leaches excessively more contaminants. While 410°F temperature is beyond the maximum rated temperature for PEX, it should convey the message clearly.

Another study indicates that exposure to water over-saturated with all (3) common disinfectants – chlorine, chloramine, and chlorine dioxide significantly affected the stability of the PEX pipe during testing, making the pipe more brittle and prone to cracking. This is another important reason to assure that your PEX plumbing pipe meets ASTM F2023 standards for resistance of PEX to chlorine. There exist opinions that F2023 is not comprehensive since it does not include chloramine and chlorine dioxide testing, but the study evidence suggests it is not necessary since all disinfectants affect the pipe in a similar manner. PEX pipe which meets ASTM F2023 has a life expectancy of about 50 years.

Combined together, these reports clearly suggest that the primary reason for the leaching of chemicals from PEX is the over-chlorination of water. Conclusively, PEX is, therefore, best suited for low- and non-chlorinated plumbing systems.

Possible solutions and preventative measures:

  • Test water quality and determine whether PEX is suitable. Water pH should be at or above 6.5 and chlorine concentration should be at or below 4.0 ppm (parts per million).
  • Install a whole-house water filter. First, it will help to filter out unwanted contaminants in water supply including chlorine and its compounds which are known neurotoxins and may react to produce carcinogenic byproducts. Second, it will protect PEX plumbing system from early degradation and leaching of chemicals. An under-the-sink filter may also be a viable, although less effective solution.
  • Flush the newly installed or stagnated plumbing system thoroughly prior to using it. An independent study has shown that following 30 days after the initial use, the contaminant levels in water have decreased from 175 ppb (parts per billion) to 74 ppb (57% reduction).

While this information may come as a surprise to some, we also want to note that copper pipes are also subject to degradation and contaminant leaching, causing increased water toxicity. Conclusively, in order to make a safer and healthier choice, water quality should be tested prior to selecting either PEX or copper and an informed decision made based on numbers, not mere opinions or personal preferences.

2. Odor or aftertaste caused by improper storage, installation, or from municipal or groundwater (well water) water contamination. PEX, like many other plastics (i.e. polypropylene jugs used for milk and juice) may absorb odors. If improperly stored or installed next to a source of odor, PEX may transfer it (albeit, in small amounts) to water, resulting in an unpleasant smell or aftertaste.
A number of residents living in areas with increased industrial activities (drilling, manufacturing) have also reported gasoline-like or chemical odor/taste in water. In both cases, these issues do not originate in PEX plumbing systems.

Possible solutions:

  • Install a water filter
  • Avoid installation and storage which may expose PEX to unpleasant or harmful odors.



Kitec What is it?

  • Kitec® is a brand of plastic piping used in hot and cold water supplies to plumbing fixtures and in heating systems with boilers. It was made from 1995 to 2007.
  • It is cross-linked polyethylene (PEX). It often has a thin layer of aluminum embedded between the inner and outer PEX walls. That type is called PEX-AL-PEX. The aluminum prevents oxygen from moving through the pipe walls. Oxygen can lead to corrosion of boilers, for example.
  • PEX piping, including Kitec®, was popular because it was faster (less expensive) to install than copper. PEX continues to be popular for both plumbing and heating systems in homes.

An Issue

  • We should start by saying that as of January 2018, we have seen very few failure problems with this piping in our inspection area. A class action lawsuit was issued in 2011 against IPEX Inc., the manufacturer of Kitec®, alleging that the Kitec® System “may be subject to premature failure and otherwise may not perform in accordance with the reasonable expectation of users.”
  • The lawsuit includes other IPEX products in addition to Kitec®. Many of these are solid wall PEX pipes with no layer of embedded aluminum. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no premature material failures with these pipes.
  • IPEX and their insurance company settled and set up a $125 million fund to provide compensation for those with Kitec® failures.
  • One alleged issue is with fittings that contain high levels of zinc, resulting in corrosion and weakness over time.
    • This may result in leaks and water damage to the home
    • May also result in clogging and poor water pressure and flow
  • We don’t know if the issue is limited to areas with certain water chemistry, for example, or whether there were manufacturing issues with some of the products.
  • The other issue is dark spots and/or blisters forming on the pipe.

Identifying Plumbing Involved in the Lawsuit

  • It’s usually blue on cold water piping and red or orange on hot water piping. It may also be black, white, or grey. The heating system piping is most often orange.
  • Piping named in the lawsuit includes the following brand names: Kitec, Plumbetter, IPEX AQUA, WarmRite, Kitec XPA, AmbioComfort, XPA, KERR Controls, or Plomberie Améliorée.
  • Fittings may also say Kitec or KT.
  • Where to look:
    • Near the hot water tank or near the boiler.
    • Under kitchen sinks or bathroom vanities.
    • There may be a notice on the electrical panel stating that Kitec® is used in the home, warning electricians not to ground the electrical system to it.
    • You can also ask a professional home inspector or a plumber.

What if you have piping named in the lawsuit?

  • Register with the class action website as a precautionary measure. If you have a problem, you may be reimbursed, in full or in part.
  • Our best advice is to do what the class action website advises:
  • File a claim as a precaution.
  • The website is not recommending replacing the pipe where there are no issues.
  • Watch for white corrosion on brass fittings. Contact a plumber if you see any discoloration, or notice a drop in water pressure. Hot water piping is more vulnerable than cold.
  • Watch for black spots or blisters on the pipe, particularly near the water heater.
  • Reminder: We have seen very few problems.
  • Note: Homes with a pump that constantly recirculates hot water may be more prone to problems.
  • We recommend tempering valves (mixing valves) on hot water systems to control the hot water temperature.

Galvanized Water Lines - The Issues and risk

Read This Article in FULL and obtain bids from licensed contractors if your inspection report brought you here !!!!!


What are galvanized pipes?

Galvanized iron pipes are actually steel pipes (water distribution lines) that are covered with a protective layer of zinc. Galvanized pipes were installed in many homes in the Seattle area that were built before the 1960s. Over many years, zinc erodes from galvanized pipes. Corrosion can build up on the inside walls of the pipes and creates the potential for lead to accumulating over time. Corrosion in galvanized pipes can lead to lower water pressure and water quality issues. Replacement of these lines can also be expensive. We watch out for this type of plumbing when we are performing a standard home inspection.

Should I be concerned about my galvanized pipes?

One concern would be water leaks and flooding. These types of lines fail inside walls and can cause extensive flood damage. The life expectancy of these water lines is around 50 years so the majority of them are now within this range as they are not used anymore. Some insurance companies will not provide coverage to a home with galvanized water lines.

Secondly, homes that have galvanized pipes and have or had lead service lines can potentially have lead released in tap water from these corroded pipes. Customers that had lead service lines replaced, but still have galvanized pipes, are still susceptible to lead in water from lead released from the galvanized pipes. Customers that never had lead service lines, but have galvanized pipes, are not at significant risk for lead release from galvanized iron pipes.

How can customers determine if they have galvanized pipes?

Find where your piping enters your home and then scratch it. If the piping is:

Copper —the scratched area will have the look of a copper penny.
Galvanized steel —the scratched area will be a silver-gray color and have threads.
Plastic —usually white, blue, red, gray, or yellow in color and you will be able to see a clamp where it is joined to the water supply piping.
Our licensed inspectors can advise you of the type of pipes in your home during a home inspection or during our water testing services.

What is the relationship between galvanized pipes and lead?

Homes that have galvanized pipes and have or had lead service lines are at risk for the release of lead in water from corroded pipes. In-home galvanized iron pipes are found to accumulate lead that is released from lead service lines. As galvanized pipes corrode and form rust, lead that is accumulated over decades is likely to be found deep in the interior walls of rusty pipes. Lead in galvanized iron home plumbing can periodically contribute to lead in drinking water. The only way to ensure that lead is not mobilized from plumbing to tap in a given home is to fully replace the galvanized plumbing and lead service lines. Galvanized pipes may continue to serve as a lead source in drinking water long after all other sources of lead have been removed, including lead service lines and fixtures.

Can lead be released from galvanized pipes if the lead service lines have been replaced?

Lead accumulated in corroded pipes can persist and be present in household tap water after the full replacement of lead service lines, potentially for the remaining service life of the galvanized plumbing. Although lead service lines have been replaced, the rusted areas of galvanized pipes contain deep layers of iron and lead minerals that have accumulated over decades and continue to be released in water. Lead released immediately after lead service line replacement can increase as a result of disturbing the fragile interior surfaces of in-home corroded galvanized pipes. Lead release following lead service replacement varies with location. Typically, a decreasing trend is found in a lead release as time elapses following lead service replacement.

What factors should I look for that can increase the release of lead from galvanized pipes?

Lead release from galvanized plumbing can be increased by excessively high water flow or physical disturbances, such as water hammer (vibration of the pipes when they are suddenly turned on or off quickly). Any modifications or improvements to the plumbing, including water heater installations or even fixture replacements, could potentially lead to short-term spikes in a lead release. Call our office for a water test or drop a sample off at our office ( Use a clean water bottle and collect 16oz )

Can lead released from galvanized pipes vary by location?

The potential for lead release from galvanized plumbing at a given home must be assessed on an individual basis because lead released from galvanized plumbing can differ substantially in magnitude and behavior from one location to another. Lead-in water testing is recommended. Call 425-608-9553 for testing. Other factors, such as plumbing history, pipe layout in the home, and length of the lead service line might impact the degree to which lead is accumulated in galvanized plumbing at a given location. We find steel lines in Seattle, Bellevue, Redmond, Kirkland, Bothell, and other areas in the State of Washington.

Does flushing your water for a specific time decrease the presence of lead from galvanized pipes?

If you have galvanized pipes and have had lead service lines, lead can be released at any time, and may still be present in the water after flushing your taps. Pacific Northwest Inspections Group recommends replacing galvanized pipes or using NSF-certified filters to prevent lead in drinking water. If you have lead service lines and no galvanized pipes or if you have galvanized pipes and never had a lead service line, we recommend flushing your water for at least two minutes prior to using water for cooking or drinking, when the water has not been used for several hours.

Can galvanized pipes cause discoloration in the water?

Yes, in-home galvanized pipes can release iron and cause discoloration. An easy way to check for this is to look inside your toilet tanks. Lift the lid and inspect the bottom of the tank. If you have or had lead service lines and still have galvanized plumbing, we recommend replacing lead service lines and galvanized pipes or drinking filtered tap water.

What if I am pregnant or have young children?

We take exposure to lead very seriously and all of our inspectors are State Licensed Lead Risk Assessors and can help in any Lead paint, solid or water testing. If you are pregnant; have children under the age of six; have lead service lines; and/or previously had lead service lines and still have galvanized plumbing:

Drink filtered tap water and use filtered tap water to prepare infant formula or concentrated juices until the source has been identified and removed.
Boiling water does not reduce lead levels. If you have additional concerns about a child's health or would like the screening done by his/her own doctor, please contact his/her pediatrician to have lead levels in your blood tested.

Should I have my water tested for lead?

If you have or had lead service lines and have galvanized pipes, it is likely to lead is only periodically released in the water and a single lead test may not be an effective tool in identifying actual lead levels. However, if you have a concern, call our office @ 425.608.9553 to order a water test. 

What types of filters are recommended for removing lead in water?

If you are purchasing a treatment device to reduce lead levels at your tap, choose a treatment device installed at the tap or use a filtration pitcher. These devices must be used, installed, operated, and maintained according to manufacturer instructions. Be sure to purchase a treatment device certified by an independent testing organization, such as NSF International. You can search for the NSF International website for certified drinking water treatment devices by visiting. Please be advised that the EPA does not endorse specific home drinking water treatment devices.

What do I do if I own a home that has galvanized pipes?

The only way to fully ensure that lead is not mobilized from galvanized plumbing in a given home is to fully replace the galvanized plumbing.

What do I do if I live in a rental property that has galvanized pipes?

Contact your property manager or landlord to discuss this issue.

Please understand the above video is great with the following exceptions for Bellevue and Seattle Washington areas. Most local code now requires that all retrofitted PEX piping is still secured to current code standards. So what does this mean? Well, you just can't run it in walls without tearing into them because the piping is required to be secured within the wall system. Washington area water also eats the piping from the inside out as this video from Texas explains.

Cost for water line re-piping in Bellevue, WA area


Do Seattle homes need a Sewer Scope with the Home Inspection?

Sewer scope finds broken line on this Seattle area home:

Mid Century nestled in one of Seattle's great neighborhoods, this rambler charmer has all the luxuries of an updated home, yet the charm of the 1950s. Hardwood floors, wooded vaulted ceilings, IKEA kitchen and bathrooms, large master bedroom, good sized bedrooms. The sale failed due to sewer scope inspection see attached doc's icon


Just added to the form 35 inspection addendum in 2014 for the State of Washington

Inspection Addendum (Form 35)

Form 35 will be revised to clarify that the inspection may only be conducted by the buyer, a licensed home inspector, or a person exempt from licensing (e.g. engineer, architect, licensed electrician, licensed plumber, licensed pest inspector, etc.) There is no exemption for general contractors in the inspector license law (RCW 18.280). In addition, Paragraph 1 will include the option to allow a buyer to conduct an inspection of the sewer system, which may include a video inspection and require the inspector to remove toilets or other fixtures. Please note that Form 35 requires that the buyer restore the property to the same condition as it was prior to the inspection and makes the buyer responsible for any damage to the property resulting from the inspection. These same revisions will also be made to the Pre-Inspection Agreement (Form 35P).
Our sewer camera inspections include ground location, complete computer-generated report along with online video access of the sewer lines inspected. This is a valuable service for not only older homes in the Seattle area yet even newer homes in the Bellevue area where tree growth caused much damage to the side sewer lines. Know before you buy, call us today 425.608.9553